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Breaking down the barriers to firmgrowth in Europe The fourth EFIGE policy report

This report is the sixth and last in a series devoted to the firm-level determinants of export and economic performance. The series started in 2007 with the Happy Few report. It is based on the EFIGE survey of European firms organised by a Bruegel-led team of European researchers from seven centres, with the support of the European Commission and the UniCredit Group.

By: , , and Date: August 28, 2012 Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy

Large firms contribute disproportionately to the economic performance of countries: they are more productive, pay higher wages, enjoy higher profits and are more successful in international markets. The differences between European countries in terms of the size of their firms are stark. Firms in Italy and Spain, for example, are on average 40 percent smaller than firms in Germany. The low average firm size translates into a chronic lack of large firms. In Italy and Spain, a mere 5 percent of manufacturing firms have more than 250 employees, compared to a much higher 11 percent in Germany. Understanding the roots of these differences is key to improving the economic performance of Europe’s lagging economies.

So why is there so much variation in firm size in different European countries? What are the barriers that keep firms in some countries from growing? And which policies are likely to be most effective in breaking down those barriers? This policy report aims to answer these questions by developing a quantitative model of the seven European countries covered by the EFIGE survey (Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and the UK). The EFIGE survey asked 14,444 firms in those countries about their performance, their modes of internationalisation, their staffing decisions, their financing structure, and their competitive environment, among other topics.

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Policy Contribution

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Speakers: Carlo Altomonte, Dan Andrews, Giuseppe Nicoletti and Reinhilde Veugelers Topic: Finance & Financial Regulation, Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: December 6, 2017
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Policy Contribution

European Parliament

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During the crisis, the ECB resorted to a number of unconventional monetary tools. This paper discusses how to phase out these policies and what the ‘new normal’ in monetary policy should look like.

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External Publication

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By: Reinhilde Veugelers Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Date: October 2, 2017
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