Blog Post

Brain drain, gain, or circulation?

Over the long-term (pre-crisis) period analysed, Spain and the UK seemed the best placed at attracting high-quality scientists. France and Germany were broadly breaking even in terms of quality, although we note that they were facing significant net outflows of scientists, as was the UK.

By: Date: November 25, 2014 Innovation & Competition Policy Tags & Topics

Source: OECD, own calculations

For each author and mobility profile, the median across the relevant journals’ Source-Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) over the entire period is calculated. A SNIP impact value that is higher than one means that the median attributed SNIP for authors of that country/category is above average.

International mobility of scientific researchers is inferred from authors listed in the Scopus Custom database of peer-reviewed scientific publications, with at least two documents during the reference period, based on changes in the location of their institutional affiliation. Outflows are defined on the basis of their first affiliation. Inflows are defined on the basis of the final affiliation and exclude individual authors who “return” to their original country of affiliation.

This chart benchmarks the median quality1 of scientists leaving or moving (for the first time) to a country between 1996-2011. The size of the bubble corresponds to total flows (inflows plus outflows). Countries in red are net contributors to the international market for scientists, those in blue net recipients2.

Ideally, a country should want to be below or on the 45-degree line, indicating that the quality of the newcomers is just as high (or higher) as that of the leavers. Conditional on this, a country should also prefer a larger rather than smaller bubble, representing a sizeable flow of scientists and indicating a full exploitation of synergies gained from international cooperation. Finally, countries should aim to land in the top-right quadrant, indicating higher quality of both incoming and outgoing researchers.

Over the long-term (pre-crisis) period analysed, Spain and the UK seemed the best placed at attracting high-quality scientists. France and Germany were broadly breaking even in terms of quality, although we note that they were facing significant net outflows of scientists, as was the UK.

All in all, in the sample here presented, while the US (unsurprisingly) comes out as the top performer in terms of net inflow of quality researchers, Italy ranks quite poorly. Not only the country is a net contributor of scientists, it also trades high quality researchers for lower quality ones. Time for a reform of the university system?


Republishing and referencing

Bruegel considers itself a public good and takes no institutional standpoint. Anyone is free to republish and/or quote this post without prior consent. Please provide a full reference, clearly stating Bruegel and the relevant author as the source, and include a prominent hyperlink to the original post.

View comments
Read about event

Upcoming Event

Sep
6-7
09:30

Bruegel Annual Meetings 2016

The Annual Meetings are a high point in Bruegel's calendar.

Speakers: Michel Barnier, Joachim Bitterlich, Arnoud Boot, Albert Bravo-Biosca, Elmar Brok, Nadia Calviño, Tom Carver, Daniel Daianu, Zsolt Darvas, Paulina Dejmek-Hack, Jeroen Dijsselbloem, Alicia García-Herrero, Sylvie Goulard, Charles Grant, Dominique Guellec, Connie Hedegaard, Michel Houdebine, Vazil Hudák, Brigitte Knopf, Pascal Lamy, Lawrence J. Lau, Matthew Lobner, Robert Madelin, Sylvie Matherat, Simone Mori, Erik F. Nielsen, Barbara Novick, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Romano Prodi, Olli Rehn, Carmen M. Reinhart, André Sapir, Dirk Schoenmaker, Ludger Schuknecht, Egon Schulz, Maroš Šefčovič, Jeremy Shapiro, Scott Stern, Jean-Claude Trichet, Laszlo Varro, Nicolas Véron, Reinhilde Veugelers, Helen Wallace, Guntram B. Wolff and Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate, European Macroeconomics & Governance, Finance & Financial Regulation, Global Economics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Autoworld, Brussels, Belgium
Read article More on this topic

Blog Post

Tommaso Aquilante
IMG_20150922_160434

Update of the EFIGE dataset

The EFIGE dataset on firms' competitivenes was recently updated by extending the panel-level balance sheet data until the year 2014. This post highlights the main features of the brand new data.

By: Tommaso Aquilante and Domenico Favoino Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: August 22, 2016
Read about event More on this topic

Upcoming Event

Oct
12
00:30

Europe Lab: Competitiveness and inclusive growth

The Europe Lab aims to support the design, launch and implementation of actionable agendas for public-private collaborations to increase competitiveness and inclusive growth in Europe.

Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read about event More on this topic

Upcoming Event

Oct
20
00:30

Digital platforms: A policy and research agenda

The number of digital platforms is currently rising in many countries and sectors. What are the opportunities of platforms and which kind of regulation and policy framework is necessary to promote healthy competition?

Speakers: Jacques Crémer and Diane Coyle Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read about event More on this topic

Upcoming Event

Oct
25
00:30

Value-added tax challenges for cross-border commerce and SMEs

This event addresses challenges for cross-border commerce that arise from V.A.T. differences across EU member states. How can tax rules on goods and services be simplified in order to boost investments and growth of SMEs?

Speakers: Georgios Petropoulos and Donato Raponi Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read article More on this topic

Blog Post

Scott Marcus
IMG_20151119_103626

Brexit and its potential impact on international data transfers

If the UK exits the EU and the EEA, it will have to go to considerable lengths to enable continued data transfers from the EU. Without an agreement on data transfers and data protection, business in the UK and the EU will be disrupted.

By: J. Scott Marcus and Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: August 4, 2016
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

Tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

Pathological microbes are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial treatments. The resulting health crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing society. At this event, Jim O'Neill will present the Independent Review on Antimicrobial Resistance and a panel will discuss how to tackle drug resistance.

Speakers: James Anderson, Sally Davies, Charles Knirsch, Jim O‘Neill, Xavier Prats Monné and Karen E. Wilson Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: July 14, 2016
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

Policies for digital innovation

We were pleased to welcome Paul Misener, Vice President of Global Public Policy at Amazon.com, to discuss innovation and regulation.

Speakers: Eva Chamizo, Paul Misener, Stephan Raes and Reinhilde Veugelers Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: July 11, 2016
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

IMG_20151119_103626

Brexit and competition policy in Europe

If the UK leaves the EU without any agreement in place, this could change the way that competition law is applied. It could also make antitrust cases more costly and competition policy instruments less effective.

By: Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: July 6, 2016
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

The role of market definition in a globalised economy

Have competition authorities kept up with globalisation? Geographic market definition is one of the most pressing issues.

Speakers: Raphaël de Coninck, Giulio Federico, Amelia Fletcher, Hans W. Friederiszick, Bruce Lyons, J. Scott Marcus and Volker Stapper Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: June 30, 2016
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

Scott Marcus

Mobile roaming, Brexit, and unintended consequences

The intermediate and long-term consequences of the UK “Brexit” referendum of 23 June 2016 are numerous and far-reaching. There has been much discussion of the impact on financial services, but very little to date on the likely implications for telecommunications regulation.

By: J. Scott Marcus Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: June 28, 2016
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

Jérémie Cohen-Setton

The breakdown of productivity diffusion

The OECD has been pushing the idea that the productivity slowdown is not so much due to a lack of innovation but rather due to a lack of innovation diffusion between firms.

By: Jérémie Cohen-Setton Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: June 27, 2016
Load more posts