Blog Post

The elimination of high denomination notes

What’s at stake: As high-denomination notes (HDNs) make it easier to transact crime, finance terrorism, and evade taxes, a number of commentators have called for their elimination.

By: Date: March 7, 2016 Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance

The case for killing HDNs

Peter Sands and Lawrence H. Summers writes that their advocacy for the elimination of high denomination notes is based on a judgment that any losses in commercial convenience are dwarfed by the gains in combatting criminal activity, not any desire to alter monetary policy or to create a cashless society. Peter Sands writes that getting rid of high denomination notes would not eliminate tax evasion, crime, terrorism, and corruption. But it would make life harder for those pursuing such activities, raising their costs and increasing the risks of detection. They would find substitutes – lower denomination notes, Bitcoin, disguising transactions through the banking system, even gold and diamonds. Yet each of these is, in one way or another, more costly, less convenient, and more prone to detection.

Peter Sands writes that the $100 bill and the €500 note are the payment instruments of choice for criminals across the world. Of course, the $100 bill is worth significantly less than the €500 note, but with over $1 trillion outstanding, the $100 bill is ubiquitous in criminal and corruption seizures all over the world. There are roughly thirty $100 bills for every US citizen, but only about 2% of American citizens have one in their wallet.  Lawrence H. Summers writes that illicit activities are facilitated when a million dollars weighs 2.2 pounds as with the 500 euro note rather than more than 50 pounds as would be the case if the $20 bill was the high denomination note.

BEBR 7 3 2016

Lawrence H. Summers writes that when the euro was being designed in the late 1990s, he argued with my European G7 colleagues that skirmishing over seigniorage by issuing a 500 euro note was highly irresponsible and made clear that in the context of an international agreement, the U.S. would consider policy regarding the $100 bill.  But because the Germans were committed to having a high denomination note, the issue was never seriously debated in international forums.

The moratorium idea

Lawrence H. Summers writes that the idea of removing existing notes is a step too far. But a moratorium on printing new high denomination notes would make the world a better place.

JP Koning writes that Summers’ moratorium is an odd remedy. A moratorium simply means that the stock of $100 bills is fixed while their price is free to float. As population growth boosts the demand for the limited supply of $100 notes, their price will rise to a premium to face value, say to $120 or $150. In other words, the value of the stock of $100 bills will simply expand to meet criminals’ demands. Another problem with a moratorium is that when a $100 bill is worth $150, it takes even less suitcases of cash to make large cocaine deals, making life easier—not harder—for criminals. To hurt criminals, the $100 needs to be withdrawn entirely from circulation, a classic demonetizaiton.

The case against killing HDNs

Colm McCarthy writes that there are lots of non-criminal users of large notes, not just horse dealers and bookmakers in Ireland but also wholesale traders in countries outside the Eurozone with dodgy currencies and unreliable money transmission systems. As much as half of all €500 notes is believed to circulate outside the Eurozone, especially in the Balkans, Turkey and Russia. Its predecessor was the German 1000 Deutschmark note, which circulated widely in these places, and the ECB version was consciously introduced so as to facilitate existing users.

JP Koning writes that the U.S. provides the world with a universal backup monetary system. Removing the $100 would reduce the effectiveness of this backup. The citizens of a dozen or so countries rely on it entirely, many more use it in a partial manner along with their domestic currency. The very real threat of dollarization has made the world a better place. Think of all the would-be Robert Mugabe’s who were prevented from hurting their nations because of the ever present threat that if they did so, their citizens would turn to the dollar. Foreigners who are being subjected to high rates of domestic inflation will find it harder to get U.S dollar shelter if the $100 is killed off.

Ashok Rao writes that there is an information tradeoff. Imagine if criminals transacted only in $10,000 notes. It would be reasonably easy for intelligence agencies to sneak a traceable note to probe criminal networks. This would be close to impossible with a $20 note (not the least because this is a high velocity note used by normal people).

Ashok Rao writes that the demand for criminal service is likely many times more inelastic than supply; especially drugs. A tax would hurt poor consumers, not drug dealers. A more direct method might be to increase the expected penalty of criminal activity.


Republishing and referencing

Bruegel considers itself a public good and takes no institutional standpoint. Anyone is free to republish and/or quote this post without prior consent. Please provide a full reference, clearly stating Bruegel and the relevant author as the source, and include a prominent hyperlink to the original post.

View comments
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

An irrational choice: behavioural economist wins Nobel Prize

Richard Thaler was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Economics for his contributions to the field of behavioural economics. His work documents a set of cognitive biases affecting economic decision-making and casts doubt on commonly-held assumptions about the rational ‘homo economicus’ that inhabits economic models and theories. What are the implications for the economics discipline and public policy?

By: Konstantinos Efstathiou Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: October 16, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

On the cost of gun ownership

On 1 October 2017, 59 people were killed and another 489 injured in what is currently the deadliest mass shooting in US modern history. The author reviews recent contributions on the economic cost of gun violence, as well as the impact of regulation.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: October 11, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

The Economics of Healthcare

Healthcare reform has been a thorn in the side of the US administration for several months, prompting President Trump to declare that “Nobody knew that healthcare could be so complicated.” We review recent economists’ views on the issue.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: October 2, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

The Fed’s Unwinding

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) held short-term interest rates steady on September 20th and announced that starting from October 2017 the Fed will gradually shrink its balance sheet, which grew considerably in response to the Great Recession. We review economists’ views on this move.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: September 25, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

Global Imbalances

The recent IMF’s External Sector Report highlighted the persistence of imbalances and a switch of imbalances towards advanced economies. We review recent contributions on this topic.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: September 21, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

Hurricane Harvey’s economic impact

What’s at stake: tropical storm Harvey has caused unprecedented and catastrophic flooding in southeastern Texas. We review recent estimates of the economic impact of this natural disaster.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: September 4, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

The US Antitrust Counter-Revolution

Plenty of recent research has highlighted a rise in concentration in the US economy, across different sectors. Economists are now wondering to what extent this is attributable to a shift in the antitrust enforcement philosophy. We review contributions to this debate.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: July 31, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

The US retail crisis

What’s at stake: America is undergoing a retail sector crisis, partly related to the increase of competition from online commerce. We review recent contributions to this debate.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: July 17, 2017
Read article More by this author

Blog Post

The Universal Basic Income discussion

What’s at stake: the concept of a Universal Basic Income (UBI), an unconditional transfer paid to each individual, was prominent earlier this year when Finland announced a pilot project. It’s now back in the discussion as the OECD published a report illustrating costs and distributional implications for selected countries. We review the most recent contributions on this topic.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Global Economics & Governance Date: June 12, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

President Trump’s budget: the 3% growth quandary

What’s at stake: the Trump administration released its full budget proposal. Economists have been arguing about the feasibility of the underlying growth assumptions, and on whether there is a double-counting implied. We review the most recent contributions to this debate.

By: Silvia Merler Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: May 29, 2017
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

Dial N for NAIRU, or not?

What’s at stake: The concept of the NAIRU (Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment) has recently divided the minds in the economic blogosphere. We review the most important contributions on its usefulness, its shortcomings, alternatives and we discuss why it is such a contested concept.

By: Pia Hüttl Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: May 22, 2017
Read article More on this topic

Blog Post

UK economic performance post-Brexit

What’s at stake: Almost a year after the UK voted to leave the European Union, its economic performance has showed mixed results. The risks of a Brexit-induced recession do not seem to be materialising. On the contrary, up until the end of 2016 the UK saw a continuation of strong consumer spending and strong output in consumer-focused activities. However, the UK economy is showing signs of slowing down in the first quarter of 2017, with weak growth in the services sector and business investments. In addition, strong consumption growth started to cool down as individuals’ purchasing power declines due to a weaker exchange rate. This leads to a question whether it is the beginning of the Brexit slowdown. We review the contributions made on this topic in the last year.

By: Uuriintuya Batsaikhan and Justine Feliu Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: May 15, 2017
Load more posts