Download publication

Policy Contribution

Going local: empowering cities to lead EU decarbonisation

Decarbonisation and digitalisation are reshaping the European energy system, which will become more decentralised and interconnected with other sectors. Cities have the opportunity to be the key drivers of decarbonisation, but this will require the implementation of a new bottom-up governance system. This paper outlines a four-step mechanism in order to achieve decarbonisation at city level.

By: and Date: November 30, 2016 Topic: Energy & Climate

Four trends are reshaping the European energy system: decarbonisation, digitalisation and, as a result of the two, decentralisation and convergence.

Based on strong public policies, decarbonisation is reshuffling the European energy mix, while innovation in digital technologies is enabling disruptive change in the way energy systems are operated. This enables the European energy system to become more decentralised with increasing interaction between services (electricity, heat, transport, data) that used to be largely separate.

In this new context, cities are the key arenas of decarbonisation. However, European Union (EU) energy and climate governance is based on top-down policies that are not complemented by a solid bottom-up system that ensures consistency of EU, national and local measures and incentivises decarbonisation at city level.

This Policy Contribution proposes better integration of top-down energy and climate policy mechanisms with new bottom-up incentives that aim to promote decarbonisation at city level. This mechanism can be set up in four steps.

  • Step 1: understand a city’s carbon footprint and create a baseline scenario. A participating city should start by carrying out an emissions inventory that would quantify the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from energy consumption on its territory during a specific year. This should identify the principal sources of emissions and therefore enable prioritisation of reduction measures.
  • Step 2: understand a city’s carbon handprint and create a reference scenario. With an emissions inventory in place, each city can identify the areas of its economy with the greatest decarbonisation potential, and can prioritise its decarbonisation policies accordingly.
  • Step 3: create a city Climate Plan. The baseline and reference scenarios would form the basis of comprehensive city Climate Plans. To ensure consistency of national and municipal policies, Climate Plans could be developed as a sub-component of member state National Energy and Climate Plans.
  • Step 4: track progress and allocate financial support. City progress reports on decarbonisation should be used by the EU to determine the eligibility of local governments for EU grants. Grants would be key to the success of this scheme. If EU money is given to a city to implement a project listed in its Climate Plan, it should be paid in in biennial tranches, conditional on positive progress reports.

A grant-based system would give the EU some control over the effective implementation of cities’ decarbonisation projects. EU countries could use city progress reports to provide fiscal incentives to cities that implement in practice their Climate Plans. This premium system would make economic sense for member states considering that the better cities perform in terms of decarbonisation, the easier it will be to achieve national decarbonisation targets.

View comments
Read article Download PDF More on this topic

Policy Brief

A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership

Memo to the presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. 'A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership' by Maria Demertzis, André Sapir and Guntram Wolff is the first of our 2019 Bruegel memos to the new presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. Focusing on the most important economic questions at EU level, these Bruegel memos are intended to be a strategic to-do list, outlining the state of affairs that will greet the new Commission.

By: Maria Demertzis, André Sapir and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 13, 2019
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

Past, present, and future EU trade policy: a conversation with Commissioner Malmström

What was trade policy during the last European Commission? What will be the future of European trade under the next Commission?

Speakers: Cecilia Malmström, André Sapir and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: June 13, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Podcast

Podcast

Director’s Cut: A strategic agenda for the incoming EU presidents

In this Director’s Cut of ‘The Sound of Economics’, Bruegel’s Guntram Wolff and Maria Demertzis talk through their memo to the new presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament, outlining the specific measures that should be implemented in order to tackle the most formidable challenges arising in the next five years.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 12, 2019
Read article Download PDF More on this topic

External Publication

Effectiveness of cohesion policy: learning from the project characteristics that produce the best results

This study by Zsolt Darvas, Antoine Mathieu Collin, Jan Mazza, and Catarina Midões analyses the characteristics of cohesion policy projects that can contribute to successful outcomes. Their analysis is based on a literature survey, an econometric analysis and interviews with stakeholders. About two dozen project characteristics are considered, and their association with economic growth is studied using a novel methodology. Based on the findings, the study concludes with recommendations for cohesion policy reform.

By: Zsolt Darvas, Antoine Mathieu Collin, Jan Mazza and Catarina Midoes Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 11, 2019
Read about event More on this topic

Upcoming Event

Jun
25
08:30

How comprehensive is the EU political realignment?

Has the left-right divide become obsolete in EU politics?

Speakers: David Amiel, Otilia Dhand, Nicolas Véron and Silke Wettach Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

Brussels Policy Dialogue: Insights for EU and Member States’ Climate Agenda

The event is a policy dialogue organised under the project, 'COP21: Results and Implications for Pathways and Policies for Low Emissions European Societies'.

Speakers: Petya Icheva, David Morales, Artur Runge-Metzger, Oliver Sartor, Marta Torres-Gunfaus, Vincent Van Steenberghe and Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: June 7, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Podcast

Podcast

Backstage: Making the most of climate modelling

Bruegel senior fellow Georg Zachmann interviews Massimo Tavoni, professor at the Politecnico di Milano and director of EIEE, on the purpose of climate and energy models, what they can deliver and what are the most recent developments in their formulation.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Energy & Climate Date: June 6, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

The next ECB president

On May 28th, EU heads of state and government will start the nomination process for the next ECB president. Leaving names of possible candidates aside, this review tries to isolate the arguments about what qualifications the new president should have and what challenges he or she is likely to face.

By: Konstantinos Efstathiou Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: May 27, 2019
Read article Download PDF More on this topic

Policy Contribution

How to improve European Union cohesion policy for the next decade

This policy contribution investigates the performance of the design, implementation and effectiveness of cohesion policy, the most evaluated EU tool for promoting economic convergence. By analysing the effects of cohesion policy on economic growth through reviewing literature, conducting empirical research by comparing regions, as well as considering attitudes and expectations collected through interviewing stakeholders, the authors provide reform recommendations.

By: Zsolt Darvas, Jan Mazza and Catarina Midoes Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: May 23, 2019
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

Europe after Sibiu: Towards differentiated integration?

A comprehensive follow-up to the Informal European Council in Sibiu, Romania.

Speakers: Andrew Duff, John Erik Fossum, Paweł Karbownik and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: May 21, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Blog Post

European bank resolution plans are undermined by a lack of transparency

The discussions of the now-aborted merger of Germany’s two largest banks underlined supervisors’ concerns over creating banks that are too big or too complex to fail. While European banks are increasingly funded through securities that could be subject to a bail-in, transparency over how any resolutions would unfold is as yet very poor.

By: Alexander Lehmann Topic: Finance & Financial Regulation Date: May 15, 2019
Read about event More on this topic

Past Event

Past Event

How do national energy policies fit into EU decarbonisation plans?

Through considering several different national perspectives, we discuss how to reconcile the EU Climate Strategy targets with national energy and climate policies.

Speakers: Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Fyk, Christian von Hirschhausen, Carole Mathieu and Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: May 15, 2019
Load more posts