The modernisation of the Ukrainian economy and state continues to develop at an unsatisfactory pace due to a lack of pro-reform political consensus. The two upcoming election campaigns in 2019 (presidential and parliamentary) make the reform process even slower and additionally put its effectiveness and sustainability under risk. The international community has a limited toolkit to overcome this stalemate.
Ukraine’s late and incomplete economic reform created a class of super-wealthy oligarchs who now stand in the way of further liberalisation. The oligarchs’ oversized influence only deepens public distrust in a structurally weak political system. Nevertheless, Ukraine is making some attempts to uproot corruption and the next steps are clear.
What were the reasons for the Indian government's sudden decision to remove 86% of hard currency from circulation? Will Modi's monetary intervention achieve its stated aim of fighting corruption? And what will be the wider implications for growth?
Despite recent efforts to tackle corruption there is not much evidence that these strategies are producing results. Why is this the case and what can we do to improve the situation?
Tackling corruption is not only a matter of fairness, but it is also crucial to boost Italy’s potential output after three years of recession and almost two decades of stagnation.