The digital transformation has already had an impact on policymaking, and this trend will continue in the years to come. How will the political process change and how can influencers guide this change?
Decarbonisation and digitalisation are reshaping the European energy system, which will become more decentralised and interconnected with other sectors. Cities have the opportunity to be the key drivers of decarbonisation, but this will require the implementation of a new bottom-up governance system. This paper outlines a four-step mechanism in order to achieve decarbonisation at city level.
Search engines are intermediaries in a two-way market between users and advertisers. Their huge stocks of data about users and their preferences can help search engines offer better services to all parties. But does this make market entry difficult for new players? And can we see network effects emerging in the search engine market?
The number of digital platforms is currently rising in many countries and sectors. What are the opportunities of platforms and which kind of regulation and policy framework is necessary to promote healthy competition?
The ‘internet of things’ will bring major changes in many areas of life, including the political arena. What will be the new communication tools, strategies and narratives for policymakers?
This paper explains the similarities and differences between European and U.S. net neutrality rules.
What’s at stake: On August 30th, following the results of an in-depth state aid investigation started in 2014, the European Commission concluded that Ireland granted undue tax benefits of up to €13 billion to Apple. The decision is based on state aid grounds: the Commission argues that two tax rulings issued by Ireland effectively granted Apple preferential treatment, which amounted to state aid. The Commission ordered Ireland to recover up to €13 billion (plus interest) from Apple, but the decision is controversial and opinion differ as to the effects it will have. We summarize reactions.
In 2015 the European Union adopted new rules seeking to implement a roam like at home regime for member states. This Working Paper highlights challenges in implementing roam like at home, and it provides insights on the economics of international mobile roaming.
The new guidelines issued on the implementation of European net neutrality rules by national regulators are sensible and pragmatic.
As the economy moves online, it becomes more difficult for national tax authorities to collect revenue. How great is the impact, and what should corporate taxation look like in the digital age?
Consumers, retail shippers, and European and national regulatory authorities could benefit from enhanced visibility into the price of shipping goods across borders in Europe.
The expansion of e-commerce, a substantial growth opportunity for Europe, is hampered by high cross-border parcel delivery prices. This paper analyses the economics of cross-border parcel delivery and it draws a comparison with the telecommunications sector.