Both in Europe and the US, economists are starting to notice how the economies of cities have been sometimes diverging from the economies of states. While some areas thrive, others may be permanently left behind. Maybe it is time to adopt a more clearly sub-national perspective. We review recent contributions on this issue.
This instalment of the Sound of Economics features Bruegel fellows Reinhilde Veugelers, Simone Tagliapietra and J. Scott Marcus explain how European industries are adapting to new manufacturing, and what more can be done to help EU countries and companies keep pace with the burgeoning 'Industry 4.0'
Europe needs to know how it can realise the potential for industrial rejuvenation. How well are European firms responding to the new opportunities for growth, and in which global value chains are they developing these new activities? The policy discussion on the future of manufacturing requires an understanding of the changing role of manufacturing in Europe’s growth agenda.