Download publication

External Publication

Tax harmonization in Europe: Moving forward

The debate on tax competition opposes those who praise its positive effect on government efficiency, and those who accuse it of distorting public choices, inducing inequality but also undermining the functioning of markets. These two polar versions coexist in the European Union.

By: , and Date: July 16, 2014 Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance

The debate on tax competition opposes those who praise its positive effect on government efficiency, and those who accuse it of distorting public choices, inducing inequality but also undermining the functioning of markets. These two polar versions coexist in the European Union. Since decisions on taxation require unanimity, it is not surprising that tax cooperation remains difficult. Still, the argument that tax distortions undermine the single market has justified some harmonization in the area of indirect taxation (Value Added Tax, excise duties); much less harmonization, however, has happened on the direct taxation of capital and labor.

The sovereign debt crisis that started in 2009 has given an impetus to the debate on tax harmonization, for three reasons:

  • Governments have been obliged to rapidly raise taxes while facing international tax competition and domestic discontent concerning the distribution of the burden;
  • Emergency assistance to crisis countries has sometimes been considered illegitimate given the low levels of taxation in some countries for companies or wealthy individuals;
  • The need for a “fiscal capacity” has emerged as a complement to the monetary union and to the banking union.

It should be noted at this stage that although they are often considered as synonymous, the words “coordination”, “cooperation”, “convergence” and “harmonization” cover somewhat different concepts. Tax harmonization (e.g. the minimum standard VAT rate, or common rules embodied in different directives on the corporate taxation), is a form of coordination. The Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base project (CCCTB) envisages a harmonization of CIT bases, but also some cooperation through the consolidation and apportionment of tax bases.3 As for convergence, it is a broader concept that is compatible with both tax coordination and tax competition. In the following, we concentrate on tax harmonization and cooperation.

View comments
Read about event

Past Event

Past Event

Climate change and the role of central banks

What connections exist between central banks and climate change, and what are the resulting implications?

Speakers: Emanuele Campiglio, Paul Hiebert, Pierre Monnin, Kjell G. Nyborg, Luiz Awazu Pereira da Silva, Mario Quagliariello, Mattia Romani, Paweł Samecki and Dirk Schoenmaker Topic: Energy & Climate, European Macroeconomics & Governance Location: Narodowy Bank Polski, Świętokrzyska 11/21, 00-919 Warsaw Date: September 16, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Opinion

Germany’s Divided Soul

Eastern Germans vote, think, and feel differently than western Germans do, as the results of the September 1 regional elections make clear. To help tackle the underlying economic causes of this divide, the federal government should introduce incentives to encourage foreign investment in the east of the country.

By: Dalia Marin Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 13, 2019
Read article Download PDF

Policy Contribution

European Parliament

Hybrid and cybersecurity threats and the European Union’s financial system

The authors document the rise in hybrid threats and cyber attacks in the European Union. Exploring preparations to increase the resilience of the financial system they find that at the individual institutional level, significant measures have been taken, but the EU finance ministers should advance a broader political discussion on the integration of the EU security architecture applicable to the financial system.

By: Maria Demertzis and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, European Parliament, Finance & Financial Regulation, Testimonies Date: September 12, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Opinion

Economic priorities for new EU leadership

Europe is no longer in crisis mode. However, it remains vulnerable; it is unprepared and it is procrastinating. Following European elections this May, new leaders are about to take their positions at the main European institutions for the next 5 years. They have the power in their hands to take action. But more importantly, they have the power to convene 28 states, which, if united, can play a significant global role. What are the urgent challenges that require collective European action?

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 10, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Podcast

Podcast

Backstage at BAM19: Enhancing Europe's economic sovereignty

Backstage at the Bruegel Annual Meetings, Nicholas Barrett talks with Jean Pisani-Ferry on Europe's monetary union.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 5, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Podcast

Podcast

Backstage at BAM19: Priorities for Europe's monetary union

Backstage at the Bruegel Annual Meetings, Nicholas Barrett talks with Zsolt Darvas on Europe's monetary union.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 5, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Podcast

Podcast

Backstage at BAM19: Which priorities for the new EU leadership?

Backstage at the Bruegel Annual Meetings, Rebecca Christie talks with Guntram Wolff on priorities for the new EU leadership, the Annual Meetings and Commissioner Malmstrom's keynote.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 4, 2019
Read about event

Past Event

Past Event

Bruegel Annual Meetings 2019

Bruegel's 2019 Annual Meetings will be held on 4-5 September and feature the launch of Bruegel's Memos to the New European Commission.

Speakers: Lorenzo Bini Smaghi, Georg Boettcher, Laurence Boone, Niels Brab, Claire Bury, Grégory Claeys, Vítor Constâncio, Zsolt Darvas, Kris Dekeyser, Jérôme Delpech, Maria Demertzis, Baroness Kishwer Falkner of Margravine, Ambroise Fayolle, Alicia García-Herrero, Mikaela Gavas, Sven Giegold, José Manuel González-Páramo, Pierre Heilbronn, Mathew Heim, Jamie Heywood, Yi Huang, Danuta Hübner, Korbinian Ibel, Shada Islam, Kate Kalutkiewicz, Brigitte Knopf, Jörg Kukies, Bernd Lange, Päivi Leino-Sandberg, Mark Leonard, Cecilia Malmström, Stefano Manservisi, J. Scott Marcus, Ann Mettler, Ashoka Mody, Reza Moghadam, Erik F. Nielsen, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Lapo Pistelli, Lucrezia Reichlin, Joakim Reiter, Victoria Roig, André Sapir, Harriet Sena Siaw-Boateng, Maria Spyraki, Philipp Steinberg, Matina Stevis-Gridneff, Alexander Stubb, Simone Tagliapietra, Jean-Claude Trichet, Laura Tyson, Nicolas Véron, Koen Vervaeke, Reinhilde Veugelers, Jasper Wesseling, Sabine Weyand, Thomas Wieser, Guntram B. Wolff and Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate, European Macroeconomics & Governance, Finance & Financial Regulation, Global Economics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Location: Palais des Academies, Rue Ducale 1, 1000 Brussels Date: September 4, 2019
Read article Download PDF

Book/Special report

Braver, greener, fairer: Memos to the EU leadership 2019-2024

This collected volume, edited by Maria Demertzis and Guntram Wolff, focusing on the most important economic questions at EU level. The memos covering 16 different files and written by 21 Bruegel scholars, are intended to present the strategic to-do list based on an assessment of the state of affairs and the challenges that will greet the new Commissioners.

By: Maria Demertzis and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Energy & Climate, European Macroeconomics & Governance, Finance & Financial Regulation, Global Economics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Date: September 3, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Opinion

Dousing the Sovereignty Wildfire

In time, the current spat between French President Emmanuel Macron and his Brazilian counterpart Jair Bolsonaro regarding the Amazon rainforest may become a mere footnote. But other rows between collective and national interests are sure to erupt, and the world needs to find a way to manage them.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 3, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Opinion

Retraites : pour la clarté

L’économiste regrette, dans sa chronique au "Monde", que les tensions internes au gouvernement aient conduit à s’écarter de la stricte logique d’un système par points.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 3, 2019
Read article More on this topic More by this author

Opinion

Why Europe needs a change of mind-set to fend off the risks of recession

Recession! This is the new worry in Europe and the US. A simple look at google trends shows that in Germany, France and the US, search interest for recession peaked in the last weeks. In Italy, the peak already occurred end of January. Whether a recession is actually occurring is difficult to gauge in real time. But there can be no doubt that significant risks such as the trade war and no-deal Brexit exist.

By: Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: September 2, 2019
Load more posts