External Publication

Global interpersonal income inequality decline: The role of China and India

Without China and India, global interpersonal income inequality in 143 countries was higher in 2015 than in 1988. Has the rest of the world really become more equal?

By: Date: May 14, 2019 Topic: Global Economics & Governance

While various methodologies have been used in the literature to estimate global interpersonal income inequality, the accuracy of these methods has not so far been tested. We compare the accuracy of four methods and find that the Lorenz curve regression method is the most accurate and robust, while the accuracy of the identical quantile income and the Kernel density methods depends on the level of detail about income shares.

The simple two-parameter distribution method is also very accurate when either the Log-normal or the Weibull distribution is used. Using the two-parameter distribution method, we show that global income inequality among the citizens of 145 countries declined significantly between 1988 and 2015, largely because of the convergence of income per capita, which was offset to a small degree by the increase in within-country inequalities and the increased population share of poorer and more unequal countries. Regional income inequality declined in most parts of the world, with the notable exception of developing Asia where it has increased. Despite the large increases in within-China and within-India inequality, income convergence of the two countries drove down global income inequality. Without China and India, global interpersonal income inequality in 143 countries was higher in 2015 than in 1988, indicating that more than half of the world has not really become more equal.

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Opinion

Farewell, flat world

In the last 50 years, the most important economic development has been the diminishing income gap between the richer and poorer countries. Now, there is a growing realisation that transformations in the global economy have been re-established centrally from intangible investments, to digital networks, to finance and exchange rates.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: July 2, 2019
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Podcast

Podcast

Deep Focus: Making a success of EU cohesion policy

Bruegel senior fellow Zsolt Darvas talks to Sean Gibson in this Deep Focus podcast about how the EU can improve its cohesion policy, citing the best examples of its implementation and stressing the methodological difficulties in measuring its effectiveness.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 20, 2019
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Policy Brief

A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership

Memo to the presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. 'A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership' by Maria Demertzis, André Sapir and Guntram Wolff is the first of our 2019 Bruegel memos to the new presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. Focusing on the most important economic questions at EU level, these Bruegel memos are intended to be a strategic to-do list, outlining the state of affairs that will greet the new Commission.

By: Maria Demertzis, André Sapir and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 13, 2019
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External Publication

Effectiveness of cohesion policy: learning from the project characteristics that produce the best results

This study by Zsolt Darvas, Antoine Mathieu Collin, Jan Mazza, and Catarina Midões analyses the characteristics of cohesion policy projects that can contribute to successful outcomes. Their analysis is based on a literature survey, an econometric analysis and interviews with stakeholders. About two dozen project characteristics are considered, and their association with economic growth is studied using a novel methodology. Based on the findings, the study concludes with recommendations for cohesion policy reform.

By: Zsolt Darvas, Antoine Mathieu Collin, Jan Mazza and Catarina Midoes Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 11, 2019
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Blog Post

A European atlas of economic success and failure

Economic growth was diverse across EU regions, yet it is crucial to control for region-specific factors in assessing growth performance. We find that there are rather successful regions in many EU countries, suggesting that the EU can provide a good framework for growth. Yet the worst performers are more concentrated in some countries, suggesting that country-specific factors can play a major role in regional development.

By: Zsolt Darvas, Jan Mazza and Catarina Midoes Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: June 3, 2019
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Policy Contribution

How to improve European Union cohesion policy for the next decade

This policy contribution investigates the performance of the design, implementation and effectiveness of cohesion policy, the most evaluated EU tool for promoting economic convergence. By analysing the effects of cohesion policy on economic growth through reviewing literature, conducting empirical research by comparing regions, as well as considering attitudes and expectations collected through interviewing stakeholders, the authors provide reform recommendations.

By: Zsolt Darvas, Jan Mazza and Catarina Midoes Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: May 23, 2019
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External Publication

Renewables for Energy Access and Sustainable Development in East Africa

This book, co-authored by Bruegel's Research Fellow Simone Tagliapietra, investigates the role of renewable energy in East Africa to provide policy-relevant inputs for the achievement of a cost-effective electrification process in the region.

By: Simone Tagliapietra, Manfred Hafner, Giacomo Falchetta and Giovanni Occhiali Topic: Energy & Climate Date: May 14, 2019
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Blog Post

EU enlargement 15th anniversary: Upward steps on the income ladder

Since their accession to the EU 15 years ago, the incomes of most central Europeans have increased faster than the incomes of longer-standing members and, thereby, they moved upwards in the EU distribution of income. Yet the very poorest people have not progressed in some countries.

By: Zsolt Darvas Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: April 30, 2019
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Blog Post

Lockin' tax haven's door

Tax avoidance and evasion harm the public coffers, and increase inequality and poverty. This post summarises the recent debate on several aspects of the issue: the update of the European blacklist of tax havens and the related recent report from Oxfam, a call for reform of international taxation by the IMF, and the request for IRS reform by US democratic senators.

By: Enrico Bergamini Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: March 25, 2019
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Podcast

Podcast

Backstage: Policy principles for a new social contract

This episode of The Sound of Economics features Bruegel senior fellow Zsolt Darvas in conversation with Maurizio Bussolo and Bernadette Ségol about income inequality in Europe and Central Asia, and the policy principles underpinning a possible new social contract.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Global Economics & Governance Date: January 24, 2019
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Past Event

Past Event

Towards a new social contract

This event will look at a a proposal for a new social contract put forward by the World Bank.

Speakers: Maurizio Bussolo, Zsolt Darvas, Ruby Gropas and Bernadette Ségol Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: January 24, 2019
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Opinion

Macroéconomie et gilets jaunes

Les analyses de la fronde des gilets jaunes ont surtout mis l’accent sur la répartition des revenus et des prélèvements entre catégories sociales et selon le lieu d’habitation. Lecture évidemment pertinente. Mais elle ne doit pas en occulter une autre, qui porte sur les évolutions d’ensemble des dix dernières années et sur ce qu’on peut anticiper pour les dix prochaines.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: December 4, 2018
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