Hybrid attacks are fast, dynamic and ever-evolving. They can cross borders and span industries. They are best dealt with at the national level, but without international cooperation, nation-states are bound to be overwhelmed. So hybrid attacks must be repelled by responsive nation-states and by cooperative international bodies.
The authors document the rise in hybrid threats and cyber attacks in the European Union. Exploring preparations to increase the resilience of the financial system they find that at the individual institutional level, significant measures have been taken, but the EU finance ministers should advance a broader political discussion on the integration of the EU security architecture applicable to the financial system.