Hybrid attacks are fast, dynamic and ever-evolving. They can cross borders and span industries. They are best dealt with at the national level, but without international cooperation, nation-states are bound to be overwhelmed. So hybrid attacks must be repelled by responsive nation-states and by cooperative international bodies.
The authors document the rise in hybrid threats and cyber attacks in the European Union. Exploring preparations to increase the resilience of the financial system they find that at the individual institutional level, significant measures have been taken, but the EU finance ministers should advance a broader political discussion on the integration of the EU security architecture applicable to the financial system.
This speech was delivered by Guntram Wolff at the Informal ECOFIN Meeting in Bucharest on 5 April 2019.
This Policy Contribution was written for the Informal ECOFIN Meeting, Bucharest, 5 April 2019. The authors look at the EU’s economic agenda, discussing the priorities for the next five years.
The Minister of Finance from Spain discusses challenges ahead of the European Council in December
What is the economic potential and the risks of crypto assets? Regulators and supervisors have taken great interest in these new markets. This Policy Contribution is a version of a paper written at the request of the Austrian Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the informal ECOFIN meeting of EU finance ministers and central bank governors.
The authors of this Policy Contribution propose five ways in which EU policymakers can contribute to development in North Africa and build partnerships on trade, investment and migration.
In this Policy Contribution, Maria Demertzsis and Guntram B. Wolff discuss three progressive steps for strengthening the fiscal framework at the euro-area level. These lead to less interference in national fiscal policymaking thanks to a more credible no-bailout clause, increased risk sharing and different degrees of provision of euro-area-wide public goods and fiscal stabilisation.
The current unsustainable use of our environment can lead to financial crisis. To address this risk, financial institutions should measure their exposure to ecological imbalances using methodologies such as carbon and natural capital accounting.
There is a European interest in getting a global climate deal in Paris that entails high mitigation ambitions and involves the EU in shaping the global climate-finance architecture.
This Policy Contribution presents facts about EU capital markets, issues that should be taken into account in the development of CMU policy, corresponding policy options over the medium to long term and suggestions for policy implementation and sequencing.
European Unemployment Insurance is one option for stabilising country specific economic cycles thanks to risk sharing, but it would not substantively influence the area-wide fiscal stance.